One of the bitter and worrying news in the export and import market these days is the loss of Iran’s position in the regional dried fruit markets and world markets.
One of the most important concerns of gardeners and exporters is the decline of pistachio production by more than 40% compared to last year, as well as the replacement of American pistachios with Iranian pistachios in world markets.
The problem of reducing the level of production and exports is related to all provinces and pistachio-rich cities such as Yazd, Fars, Kerman, Khorasan and Damghan.
From the gardeners’ point of view, the main factor in reducing production, sanctions and its consequences, including lack of drip irrigation system, low quality of agricultural inputs, dehydration, non-payment of crop damage by insurance companies and the weakness of complementary industries and processing such as advanced peeling plants and It is a cold store.
Reducing pistachio exports is the next important issue; The apathy of exporters and the accumulation of pistachios in various warehouses is the result of the effect of currency price fluctuations on the price of inputs, and in particular the government’s insistence on the introduction of half-currency and foreign exchange obligations.
. A serious question about the unhealthy situation of pistachio sales in the country and the decrease in its exports is whether this situation will continue and this year we should see the continuation of previous problems in the pistachio market?
Destruction of a quarter of a pistachio crop
According to the Secretary General of the Iranian Pistachio Association, pistachio production has decreased by 40% this year compared to 1999; In 1999, more than 230,000 tons of pistachios harvested from different provinces of the country were exported.
But this year, the situation of pistachio planting is different. And dried freshly dried pistachios.
Another problem for pistachio growers across the country is the lack of rainfall and sufficient water, and in June and July of this year, in addition to dehydration, the premature heat, which reached 45 degrees in some parts of Kerman, burned the pistachio crop that was taking kernels. All of this has led to the loss of about a quarter of gardeners’ crops this year due to climate change.
Ways to reduce atmospheric hazards
The Secretary General of the Iranian Pistachio Association tells Hamshahri about the strategies for protection from weather damage for pistachio production: One of the important issues in increasing production and avoiding the dangers of climate change is the scientificization of agricultural and horticultural methods. For example, drip irrigation both solves the problem of water shortage and reduces the irrigation season from one month to 10 days. Hossein Rezaei considers the use of wind machines, fog production, heating equipment and light reflectors to be effective in reducing cold and heat damage of pistachio crop. However, the use of this equipment is very costly, and according to gardeners, the government, in addition to paying attention to the mechanization of agriculture, does not provide the necessary facilities for gardeners to use it.
Temporary measures of pistachio exporters
Foreign exchange contracting, along with production problems, has made pistachio exports difficult, and if these foreign exchange barriers are not removed, we will continue to face a decline in pistachio production and exports this year and in the years to come. Especially since the livelihood of more than 5 million people in 27 provinces of the country depends on the production and export of pistachios. The price of Iranian pistachios has decreased in the world markets since 1997, when the contract was applied by the Central Bank. This, along with sanctions, which have made money transfer and banking operations very difficult, has reduced pistachio exports and hurt gardeners. Pistachio exporters have been forced to use costly and sophisticated networks to transfer profits to the country’s economic cycle and repatriate currencies at great expense, which could also be curtailed by US sanctions on Iran.
Value contract solution solution
In general, any economy that goes beyond monopoly produces corruption and rent, and creates problems in the process of getting goods to the people. Therefore, it is very important to solve the problem of multi-currency in relation to pistachio exports. The Secretary General of the Iranian Pistachio Association says in this regard: The gap between the Nimai currency and the free currency is very large and this gap should be reduced. Implementation of this strategy requires understanding with exporters and the cooperation of various bodies, including the Ministry of Jihad, the Ministry of Economy, the Parliament, the Trade Development Organization, the Central Bank and the Ministry of Silence. Rezaei considers the next point to be the need to close the gap between the free currency and the currency resulting from the export of pistachios and adds: . That is, as an example of the currency we have earned outside of pistachio exports, we allocate to the import of authorized items such as the same corona vaccine.
Purity of goods
Another suggestion is to help solve the currency problem of pistachio exporters. For example, a pistachio exporter exports its product to China, the currency is available in China, while a person or company that imports basic goods can use the currency of the pistachio exporter to facilitate their intended import. Rezaei, in continuation of solutions to solve foreign exchange problems, says: Creating a special green line for authorized imports, provided that the required foreign exchange is provided from the foreign exchange obtained from the export of pistachios or agricultural goods, can also be effective as a solution. Another reform proposal is related to the central bank’s performance; It is better for the Central Bank not to insist on controlling currency and rial transfers related to pistachio exports while ensuring the return of exporters’ currency.
Do not miss the opportunity to export
The loss of world markets in the seasons when Iranian pistachios are bought is important for pistachio exports, although pistachio exports in October this year were not so disappointing that in October this year about 17,000 tons of pistachios were exported while exports were 8,000 tons in August and September It reached 13,000 tons. Emphasizing on preserving the opportunities for pistachio export, the Secretary General of the Iranian Pistachio Association says: “Every year from October to January, due to important events such as Christmas in Europe, indigenous Indian and Chinese festivals, is a good opportunity to export Iranian pistachios. Lose 135,000 tons of pistachios produced.
Internal barriers to pistachio growers
Economists believe that by producing 400,000 tons of pistachios a year, the United States has taken over the global pistachio markets that have been in Iran’s possession for nearly a century, threatening Iran’s interests in the pistachio markets. Rezaei, however, believes that the United States is not a threat to our pistachio market. Incidentally, the United States, by finding new markets over the past few years, has opened Iran’s feet to these markets and even increased the price of pistachios. He emphasizes that when the pistachio market was only in Iran’s hands, the price of a pistachio was $ 4, but after the arrival of the United States and the discovery of new markets, the price of pistachios increased to $ 10; We still sell pistachios for $ 8, which is more satisfying than ever. In the end, the Secretary General of the Iranian Pistachio Association believes that what is more serious threat to Iran’s pistachio exports than the United States is the problems and barriers to domestic production that must be removed with the cooperation of the government to free gardeners and exporters of this product from the current discouragement.
Provincial concerns of pistachio growers
Damghani pistachio growers complain that due to the lack of water in the region, it is very necessary to implement piping projects and create a water storage pool, but the officials do not pay attention to providing these facilities. Pistachio growers in Yazd, while expressing dissatisfaction with the quality of pesticides and necessary nutrients, want to hold workshops and training classes for gardeners to scientificize planting and harvesting methods. Another issue protested by the country’s pistachio growers is the inefficiency of product insurance; They expect crop insurance to replace cost insurance to compensate gardeners for damages caused by weather and natural conditions.